Cybersecurity for Sustainable Smart Healthcare: State of the Art, Taxonomy, Mechanisms, and Essential Roles

Main Article Content

Guma Ali
Maad M. Mijwil


Cutting-edge technologies have been widely employed in healthcare delivery, resulting in transformative advances and promising enhanced patient care, operational efficiency, and resource usage. However, the proliferation of networked devices and data-driven systems has created new cybersecurity threats that jeopardize the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of critical healthcare data. This review paper offers a comprehensive evaluation of the current state of cybersecurity in the context of smart healthcare, presenting a structured taxonomy of its existing cyber threats, mechanisms and essential roles. This study explored cybersecurity and smart healthcare systems (SHSs). It identified and discussed the most pressing cyber threats and attacks that SHSs face, including fake base stations, medjacking, and Sybil attacks. This study examined the security measures deployed to combat cyber threats and attacks in SHSs. These measures include cryptographic-based techniques, digital watermarking, digital steganography, and many others. Patient data protection, the prevention of data breaches, and the maintenance of SHS integrity and availability are some of the roles of cybersecurity in ensuring sustainable smart healthcare. The long-term viability of smart healthcare depends on the constant assessment of cyber risks that harm healthcare providers, patients, and professionals. This review aims to inform policymakers, healthcare practitioners, and technology stakeholders about the critical imperatives and best practices for fostering a secure and resilient smart healthcare ecosystem by synthesizing insights from multidisciplinary perspectives, such as cybersecurity, healthcare management, and sustainability research. Understanding the most recent cybersecurity measures is critical for controlling escalating cyber threats and attacks on SHSs and networks and encouraging intelligent healthcare delivery.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ali, G., & M. Mijwil, M. (2024). Cybersecurity for Sustainable Smart Healthcare: State of the Art, Taxonomy, Mechanisms, and Essential Roles. Mesopotamian Journal of CyberSecurity, 4(2), 20–62.


Z. Tang, L. Jiang, X. Zhu, and M. Huang, “An Internet of Things-Based Home Telehealth System for Smart Healthcare by Monitoring Sleep and Water Usage: A Preliminary Study,” Electronics, vol.12, no.17, pp.1-14, August 2023.

M. A. Elhosseini, N. K. Gharaibeh and W. A. Abu-Ain, “Trends in Smart Healthcare Systems for Smart Cities Applications,” In Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Innovations in Smart Cities (ICAISC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 23-25 January 2023, pp.1–7.

A. Wells and A. B. Usman, “Privacy and biometrics for smart healthcare systems: attacks, and techniques,” Information Security Journal: A Global Perspective, vol.33, no.3, pp.307–331, October 2023.

F. Bu, M. Wang, and L. “Tian, Research on Medical Big Data Mining and Intelligent Analysis for Smart Healthcare,” In proceedings of International Conference on 3D Immersion, Interaction and Multi-sensory Experiences (ICDIIME), Madrid, Spain, 27-29 June 2023, pp.394–39.

S. Thapliyal, M. Wazid, D. P. Singh, A. K. Das, S. Shetty, and A. Alqahtani, “Design of Robust Blockchain-Envisioned Authenticated Key Management Mechanism for Smart Healthcare Applications,” IEEE Access, vol.11, pp.93032–93047, August 2023.

G. Sandi, S. H. Supangkat, Ermawati, “Smart Healthcare for Personalized Healthcare: Literature Review,” In Proceedings of International Conference on ICT for Smart Society (ICISS), Bandung, Indonesia, 06-07 September 2023, pp.1–7.

M.-H. Lee, I-H. Liu, and J.-S. Li, “Cyber Security in a 5G-Based Smart Healthcare Network: A Base Station Case Study,” Engineering Proceedings, vol.55, no.1, pp.1-6, December 2023.

M. Wazid, S. Thapliyal, D. P. Singh, A. K. Das, and S. Shetty, “Design and Testbed Experiments of User Authentication and Key Establishment Mechanism for Smart Healthcare Cyber-Physical Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering, vol.10, no.5, pp.2697–2709, March 2022.

Statista. "Digital Health - Worldwide." Statista. (accessed January 5, 2024).

AH. Al-Mistarehi, M. M. Mijwil, Y. Filali, M. Bounabi, G. Ali, and M. Abotaleb, “Artificial Intelligence Solutions for Health 4.0: Overcoming Challenges and Surveying Applications,” Mesopotamian Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare, vol.2023, pp.15–20, March 2023.

R. Natarajan, G. H. Lokesh, F. Flammini, A. Premkumar, V. K. Venkatesan, and S. K. Gupta, "A Novel Framework on Security and Energy Enhancement Based on Internet of Medical Things for Healthcare 5.0," Infrastructures, vol.8, no.2, pp.1–18, 2023.

L. Gomathi, A. K. Mishra, and A. K. Tyagi, “Industry 5.0 for Healthcare 5.0: Opportunities, Challenges and Future Research Possibilities,” In the Proceedings of the 2023 7th International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI), Tirunelveli, India, 11-13 April 2023

M. A. Salman and M. A. Mahdi, “Multi-Strategy Fusion for Enhancing Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs),” Iraqi Journal for Computer Science and Mathematics, vol.5, no.1, pp.299–326, 2024.

H. Alasmary, “ScalableDigitalHealth (SDH): An IoT-Based Scalable Framework for Remote Patient Monitoring,” Sensors, vol.24, no.4, pp.1–14, February 2024.

M. M. Mijwil, I. Bala, G. Ali, M. Aljanabi, M. Abotaleb, R. Doshi, K. K. Hiran and E.-S. M. El-Kenawy, “Sensing of Type 2 Diabetes Patients Based on Internet of Things Solutions: An Extensive Survey," in Modern Technology in Healthcare and Medical Education: Blockchain, IoT, AR, and VR, Ed. Hampshire: IGI Global, 2024, pp. 34-46.

M. Humayun, A. Alsirhani, F. Alserhani, M. Shaheen, and G. Alwakid, “Transformative synergy: SSEHCET—bridging mobile edge computing and AI for enhanced eHealth security and efficiency,” Journal of Cloud Computing, vol.13, no.1, pp.1–21, 2024.

Y. Zhu, J. Li, J. Kim, S. Li, Y. Zhao, et al., “Skin-interfaced electronics: A promising and intelligent paradigm for personalized healthcare,” Biomaterials, vol.296, pp.122075, 2023.

N. Kumar and R. Ali, “A smart contract-based robotic surgery authentication system for healthcare using 6G-Tactile Internet,” Computer Networks, vol.238, pp.110133, 2024.

C. M. Roberts, J. M. Plevinsky, K. L. Gamwell, A. E. Noser, L. A. Denson, and K. A. Hommel, “Self-Management assistance for recommended treatment (SMART) IBD app randomized control trial in adolescents with IBD: Design and methodology,” Health Care Transitions, vol.2, pp.1–6, 2024.

K. Al-Naime, A. Al-Anbuky, and G. Mawston, “Internet of Things Gateway Edge for Movement Monitoring in a Smart Healthcare System,” Electronics, vol.12, no.16, pp.1-13, August 2023.

S. M. H. Fard, V. Agrawal, F. Gebali, H. Elmiligi, and M. S. I. Mamun, “Ensemble Siamese Network (ESN) Using ECG Signals for Human Authentication in Smart Healthcare System,” Sensors, vol.23, no.1, pp.1-14, May 2023.

M. F. Javed, N. Tariq, M. I. Ashraf, F. A. Khan, M. Asim, and M. Imran, “Securing Smart Healthcare Cyber-Physical Systems against Blackhole and Greyhole Attacks Using a Blockchain-Enabled Gini Index Framework,” Sensors, vol.23, no.23, pp.1-45, November 2023.

A. Dhawan, “Taking Preventive Action to Reduce Cybersecurity Risks in IOT-Based Smart Healthcare Networks,” In Proceedings of International Conference on Advance Computing and Innovative Technologies in Engineering (ICACITE), Greater Noida, India, 12-13 May 2023, pp.2370–2374.

I. Albarazanchi, H. Abdulshaheed, M. M. Abdulrahman, and J. F. Tawfeq, "Identification of Faulty Sensor Nodes in WBAN Using Genetically Linked Artificial Neural Network," Iraqi Journal for Computer Science and Mathematics, vol.5, no. 2, pp.48–58, 2024.

A. Habbal, M. Ali, and M. A. Abuzaraida, "Artificial Intelligence Trust, Risk and Security Management (AI TRiSM): Frameworks, applications, challenges and future research directions," Expert Systems With Applications, vol.240, pp.1–14, 2024.

N. I. C. Mat, N. Jamil, Y. Yusoff, and L. M. Kiah, “A systematic literature review on advanced persistent threat behaviors and its detection strategy,” Journal of Cybersecurity, vol.10, no.1, pp.1–18, 2024.

K. S. Niksirat, L. Velykoivanenko, N. Zufferey, M. Cherubini, K. Huguenin, and M. Humbert, “Wearable Activity Trackers: A Survey on Utility, Privacy, and Security,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol.1, no.1, pp.1–41, 2024.

R. Shinde, S. Patil, K. Kotecha, V. Potdar, G. Selvachandran, and A. Abraham, "Securing AI‐based healthcare systems using blockchain technology: A state‐of‐the‐art systematic literature review and future research directions," Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, vol.35, no.1, pp.1–48, 2024.

L. Alzubaidi, K. Al-Dulaimi, H. A. Obeed, A. Saihood, M. A. Fadhel, S. A. Jebur, Y. Chen, A. S. Albahri, J. Santamaría, A. Gupta, and Y. Gu, "MEFF - A Model Ensemble Feature Fusion Approach for Tackling Adversarial Attacks in Medical Imaging," Intelligent Systems With Applications, vol.22, pp.1–20, 2024.

L. Da Costa, B. Pinheiro, W. Cordeiro, R. Araújo, and A. Abélem, “Sec-Health: A Blockchain-Based Protocol for Securing Health Records,” IEEE Access, vol.11, pp.16605–16620, February 2023.

M. Hiwale, R. Walambe, V. Potdar, and K. Kotecha, “A systematic review of privacy-preserving methods deployed with blockchain and federated learning for the telemedicine,” Healthcare Analytics, vol.3, pp.100192, November 2023.

G. Vukotich, “Healthcare and Cybersecurity: Taking a Zero Trust Approach,” Health Services Insights, vol. 16, July 2023

A. Petrosyan, “Statista - The Statistics Portal,” Statista. (accessed December 15, 2023).

E. A. Al-Qarni, “Cybersecurity in Healthcare: A Review of Recent Attacks and Mitigation Strategies,” International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, vol.14, no.5, pp.135–140, 2023.

F. Jaime, A. Muñoz, F. Rodríguez-Gómez, and A. Jeréz-Calero, “Strengthening Privacy and Data Security in Biomedical Microelectromechanical Systems by IoT Communication Security and Protection in Smart Healthcare,” Sensors, vol.23, no.21, pp.1–17, November 2023.

L. Zhang, Y. Zhu, W. Ren, Y. Zhang, and K. R. Choo, “Privacy-Preserving Fast Three-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement for IoT-Based E-Health Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Services Computing, vol.16, no.2, pp.1324–1333, February 2022.

Y. P. Singh, M. A. Jabbar, S. K. Shandilya, O. Вовк, and Y. Hnatiuk, “Exploring applications of blockchain in healthcare: road map and future directions,” Frontiers in Public Health, vo.11, pp.1–18, September 2023.

J. Yang, “Cybersecurity spending in healthcare worldwide 2019-2026,” Statista. (accessed December 9, 2023).

S. Saeed, S. A. Altamimi, N. A. Alkayyal, E. Alshehri, and D. A. Alabbad, “Digital Transformation and Cybersecurity Challenges for Businesses Resilience: Issues and Recommendations,” Sensors, vol.23, no.15, pp.1-20, 2023.

S. S. Goswami, S. Sarkar, K. C. Gupta, and S. Mondal, “The role of Cyber Security in Advancing Sustainable Digitalization: Opportunities and challenges,” Journal of Decision Analytics and Intelligent Computing, vol.3, no.1, pp.270–285, 2023.

S. Shitharth and H. Mouratidis, “A quantum trust and consultative transaction-based blockchain cybersecurity model for healthcare systems,” Scientific Reports, vol.13, no.1, pp.1–21, 2023.

M. M. Mijwil, M. Aljanabi, and A. H. Ali, “ChatGPT: Exploring the Role of Cybersecurity in the Protection of Medical Information,” Mesopotamian Journal of Cybersecurity, vol.2023, pp.18–21, 2023.

M. Javaid, A. Haleem, R. P. Singh, and R. Suman, “Towards insighting cybersecurity for healthcare domains: A comprehensive review of recent practices and trends,” Cyber Security and Applications, vol.1, pp.1–13, 2023.

A. Haleem, M. Javaid, R. P. Singh, and R. Suman, “Medical 4.0 technologies for healthcare: Features, capabilities, and applications,” Internet of Things and Cyber-Physical Systems, vol.2, pp.12–30, 2022.

F. Yan, N. Li, A. M. Iliyasu, A. S. Salama, and K. Hirota, “Insights into security and privacy issues in smart healthcare systems based on medical images,” Journal of Information Security and Applications, vol.78, pp.1-15, November 2023.

Q. Niu, H. Li, L.Yu, Z. Qin, L. Zhang, J. Chen, & Z. Lv, “Toward the Internet of Medical Things: Architecture, trends and challenges,” Mathematical biosciences and engineering, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 650–678, Jan. 2023, doi:

A. L. Martínez, M. G. Pérez, and A. Ruiz‐Martínez, A. “A Comprehensive Review of the State-of-the-Art on Security and Privacy Issues in Healthcare,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol.55, no.12, pp.1–38, 2023.

S. Vermani, “Smart Healthcare: Future Applications & Challenges,” 2023 10th International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), New Delhi, India, 15-17 March 2023, pp.131-135.

T. Schroeder, M. Haug, and H. Gewald, "Data Privacy Concerns Using mHealth Apps and Smart Speakers: Comparative Interview Study Among Mature Adults," JMIR formative research, vol.6, no.6, 1-12, 2022.

P. Shojaei, E. Vlahu‐Gjorgievska, and Y. Chow, "Security and Privacy of Technologies in Health Information Systems: A Systematic Literature Review," Computers, vol.13, no.2, pp.1–25, 2024.

I. Keshta, and A. Odeh, “Security and privacy of electronic health records: Concerns and challenges,” Egyptian Informatics Journal, vol.22, no.2, pp.177–183, 2021.

A. Almalawi, A. I. Khan, F. Alsolami, Y. B. Abushark, and A. S. Alfakeeh, “Managing Security of Healthcare Data for a Modern Healthcare System,” Sensors, vol.23, no.7, pp.1–18, March 2023.

S. Chaudhary, R. Kakkar, K. N. Jadav, A. Nair, R. Gupta, S. Tanwar, S. Agrawal, D. M. Alshehri, R. Sharma, G. Sharma, and E. I. Davidson, “A Taxonomy on Smart Healthcare Technologies: Security Framework, Case Study, and Future Directions,” Journal of Sensors, vol.2022, pp.1-30, July 2022.

M. A. Ahmed, H. Sindi, and M. Nour, “Cybersecurity in Hospitals: An Evaluation Model,” Journal of Cybersecurity and Privacy, vol.2, no.4, pp.853–861, 2022.

A. M. M. Al-Aboosi, S. N. H. S. Abdullah, M. Z. Murah, and G. S. A. Dharhani, “Cybersecurity Trends in Health Information Systems,” In 2022 International Conference on Cyber Resilience (ICCR), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 06-07 October 2022, pp. 1–4.

K. Konen, L. Cheon, M. Demetriou, M. DePalma, T. Jubran, L. Schleben, F. Nissan, and M. Mahmoud, “Cybersecurity for Modern American Healthcare Institutions,” The 2021 World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, & Applied Computing (CSCE), Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 26-29 July 2021, pp.1–10.

A. Majumder and C. B. Veilleux, “Smart Health and Cybersecurity in the Era of Artificial Intelligence. Computer-Mediated Communication,” IntechOpen, 2021.

C. V. Herrera, J. Valcárcel, M. Díaz-Reátegui, J. L. H. Salazar, and L. Andrade-Arenas, “Cybersecurity in health sector: a systematic review of the literature,” Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, vol.31, no.2, pp.1099–1108, 2023.

A. Ahad, Z. Ali, A. Mateen, M. Tahir, A. Hannan, N. M. García, and I. M. Pires, “A comprehensive review on 5G-based smart healthcare network Security: taxonomy, issues, solutions and future research directions,” Array, vol.18, pp.1–13, 2023.

A. Dixit, A. Trivedi, and W. W. Godfrey, “A survey of cyber attacks on blockchain based IoT systems for industry 4.0,” IET Blockchain, pp.1–20, 2022.

R. Talati, and P. Chaudhari, “The Road-ahead for E-healthcare 4.0: A Review of Security Challenges,” In 2022 1st International Conference on Informatics (ICI), Noida, India, 14-16 April 2022, pp. 1–6.

M. K. Hasan, T. M. Ghazel, R. A. Saeed, B. Pandey, H. Gohel, A. A. Eshmawi, S. Abdel‐Khalek, and H. M. Alkhassawneh, “A review on security threats, vulnerabilities, and counter measures of 5G enabled Internet‐of‐Medical‐Things,” IET Communications, vol.16, no.5, pp.421–432, 2022.

A. B. Haque, B. Bhushan, A. Nawar, K. R. Talha, and S. J. Ayesha, “Attacks and Countermeasures in IoT Based Smart Healthcare Applications,” In: Balas V.E., Solanki V.K., Kumar R. (eds) Recent Advances in Internet of Things and Machine Learning. Intelligent Systems Reference Library, pp.67–90, 2022.

I. Liu, M. Lee, H. Huang, and J. Li, J. “5G-Based Smart Healthcare and Mobile Network Security: Combating Fake Base Stations,” Applied Sciences, vol.13, no.20, pp.1–11, 2023.

N. Sivasankari and S. Kamalakkannan, “Detection and prevention of man-in-the-middle attack in iot network using regression modeling,” Advances in Engineering Software, vol.169, pp.103126, 2022.

R. Šendelj and I. Ognjanović, “Cybersecurity Challenges in Healthcare,” Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol.300, pp.190–202, 2022.

R. A. Alsowail and T. Al-Shehari, “Techniques and countermeasures for preventing insider threats,” PeerJ. Computer science, vol.8, pp.1-37, 2022.

Y. Meng, Z. Huang, G. Shen, and C. Ke, “SDN-Based Security Enforcement Framework for Data Sharing Systems of Smart Healthcare,” IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, vol.17, no.1, pp.308–318, 2020.

H. Park, P. V. Astillo, Y. Ko, Y. W. Park, T. Kim, and I. You, "SMDFbs: Specification-Based Misbehavior Detection for False Base Stations," Sensors, vol.23, no.23, pp.1–15, 2023.

B. Genge, P. Haller, and A. Roman, “E-APTDetect: Early Advanced Persistent Threat Detection in Critical Infrastructures with Dynamic Attestation,” Applied Sciences, vol.13, no.6, pp.1–22, 2023.

M. N. A. Khalid, A. A. Al-Kadhimi, and M. Singh, “Recent Developments in Game-Theory Approaches for the Detection and Defense against Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs): A Systematic Review,” Mathematics, vol.11, no.6, pp.1–34, 2023.

T. Jabar, and M. Singh, “Exploration of Mobile Device Behavior for Mitigating Advanced Persistent Threats (APT): A Systematic Literature Review and Conceptual Framework,” Sensors, vol.22, no.13, pp.1–38, 2022.

Y. Perwej, N. Akhtar, N. Kulshrestha, and P. Mishra, “A Methodical Analysis of Medical Internet of Things (MIoT) Security and Privacy in Current and Future Trends,” Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research, vol.9, no.1, pp.d346–d371, 2022.

A. A. Al-Kadhimi, M. Singh, and M. N. A. Khalid, "A Systematic Literature Review and a Conceptual Framework Proposition for Advanced Persistent Threats (APT) Detection for Mobile Devices Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques," Applied Sciences, vol.13, no. 14, pp. 1–47, 2023.

M. Waqas, S. Tu, J. Wan, T. Mir, H. Alasmary, and G. Abbas, “Defense scheme against advanced persistent threats in mobile fog computing security,” Computer Networks, vol.221, pp.109519, 2023.

Z. Muhammad, Z. Anwar, A. R. Javed, B. Saleem, S. Abbas, and T. R. Gadekallu, ”Smartphone Security and Privacy: A Survey on APTs, Sensor-Based Attacks, Side-Channel Attacks, Google Play Attacks, and Defenses,” Technologies, vol.11, no.3, pp.1–50, 2023.

A. Alahmadi, S. U. Rehman, H. Alhazmi, D. G. Glynn, H. Shoaib, and P. Solé, “Cyber-Security Threats and Side-Channel Attacks for Digital Agriculture,” Sensors, vol.22, no.9, pp.1–14, 2022.

L. Hernández–Álvarez, J. J. B. Pérez, F. K. Batista, and A. Q. Dios, “Security Threats and Cryptographic Protocols for Medical Wearables,” Mathematics, vol.10, no.6, pp.1–17, 2022.

A. I. Newaz, A. K. Sikder, M. A. Rahman, and A. S. Uluagac, “A Survey on Security and Privacy Issues in Modern Healthcare Systems,” ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare, vol.2, no.3, pp.1–44, 2021.

S. Chaudjary, R. Kakkar, R. Gupta, S. Tanwar, S. Agrawal, and R. V. Sharma, “Blockchain and federated learning-based security solutions for telesurgery system: a comprehensive review,” Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, vol.30, no.7, pp.2446–2488, 2022.

M. Sethi, J. Verma, M. Snehi, V. Baggan, Virender, and G. Chhabra, “Web Server Security Solution for Detecting Cross-site Scripting Attacks in Real-time Using Deep Learning,” In 2023 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications (ICAIA) Alliance Technology Conference (ATCON-1), Bangalore, India, 21-22 April 2023, pp.1–5.

T. Shakeel, S. Habib, W. Boulila, A. Koubâa, A. R. Javed, M. Rizwan, T. R. Gadekallu, and M. Sufiyan, “A survey on COVID-19 impact in the healthcare domain: worldwide market implementation, applications, security and privacy issues, challenges and future prospects,” Complex & Intelligent Systems, vol.9, no.1, pp.1027–1058, 2023.

J. Kumar, A. Santhanavijayan, and B. Rajendran, “Cross Site Scripting Attacks Classification using Convolutional Neural Network, “ In 2022 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI), Coimbatore, India, 25-27 January 2022, pp.1–6.

M. Indushree, M. Kaur, M. Raj, R. Shashidhara, and H. Lee, “Cross Channel Scripting and Code Injection Attacks on Web and Cloud-Based Applications: A Comprehensive Review,” Sensors, vol.22, no.5, pp.1–20, 2022.

M. Elhoseny, N. N. Thilakarathne, M. I. Alghamdi, R. K. Mahendran, A. A. Gardezi, H. Weerasinghe and A. Welhenge, A. “Security and privacy issues in Medical Internet of Things: Overview, countermeasures, challenges and future directions,” Sustainability, vol.13, no.21, pp.1–34, 2021.

P. Malhotra, Y. Singh, P. Anand, D. K. Bangotra, P. Singh, and W. Hong, "Internet of Things: Evolution, Concerns and Security Challenges," Sensors, vol.21, no.5, pp. 1–33, 2021.

A. Srhir, T. Mazri, and M. Benbrahim, “Security in the IoT: State-of-the-Art, Issues, Solutions, and Challenges,” International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, vol.14, no.5, pp.65–75, 2023.

E. Shaikh, N. Mohammad, A. R. Al-Ali, and S. Muhammad, ”A Probabilistic Model Checking (PMC) Approach to Solve Security Issues in Digital Twin (DT),” 2023 International Conference on Intelligent Data Communication Technologies and Internet of Things (IDCIoT), Bengaluru, India, 05-07 January 2023, pp.192–197.

G. Q. Butt, T. A. Sayed, R. Riaz, S. S. Rizvi, and A. Paul, “Secure Healthcare Record Sharing Mechanism with Blockchain,” Applied Sciences, vol.12, no.5, pp.1–21, 2022.

N. Capuano, G. Fenza, V. Loia, and C. Stanzione, ”Explainable Artificial Intelligence in CyberSecurity: A Survey, ”IEEE Access, vol.10, pp.93575–93600, 2022.

A. Patel, C. Williams, S. N. Hart, C. A. Garcia, T. J. S. Durant, T. C. Cornish, and D. S. McClintock, ”Cybersecurity and Information Assurance for the Clinical Laboratory,” The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine, vol.8, no.1, pp.145–161, 2023.

M. Wazid, A. K. Das, N. Mohd, and Y. Park, “Healthcare 5.0 security framework: Applications, issues and future research directions,” IEEE Access, vol.10, pp.129429-129442, December 2022.

M. Zubair, A. Ghubaish, D. Ünal, A. Al-Ali, T. Reimann, G. Alinier, M. Hammoudeh, and Qadir, J. ”Secure Bluetooth Communication in Smart Healthcare Systems: A Novel Community Dataset and Intrusion Detection System,” Sensors, vol.22, no.21, pp.1–23, 2022.

C. Miller, “3,000 Hospitals Vulnerable Due to Pneumatic Tube Flaws - Information Technology,” Healthcare Facilities Today. (accessed February 24, 2024)

L. Wasserman, and Y. Wasserman, “Hospital cybersecurity risks and gaps: Review (for the non-cyber professional),” Frontiers in Digital Health, vol.4, pp.1–20, 2022.

A. Kumar, and K. Singh, ”Blockchain-Enabled Smart Healthcare Systems Using IoT,” in Cyber Trafficking, Threat Behavior, and Malicious Activity Monitoring for Healthcare Organizations, Hampshire: IGI Global, 2023, pp.30–50.

N. Garg, M. Wazid, J. Singh, D. P. Singh, and A. K. Das, “Security in IoMT‐driven smart healthcare: A comprehensive review and open challenges,” Security and Privacy, vol.5, no.5, pp.1–27, 2022.

S. Thapliyal, M. Wazid, D. P. Singh, A. K. Das, A. Alhomoud, A. R. Alharbi, and H. Kumar, ”ACM-SH: An Efficient Access Control and Key Establishment Mechanism for Sustainable Smart Healthcare,” Sustainability, vol.14, no.8, pp.1–17, 2022.

E. Batista, M. A. Moncusí, P. López-Aguilar, A. Martínez-Ballesté, and A. Solanas, “Sensors for Context-Aware Smart Healthcare: A Security Perspective,” Sensors, vol.21, no.20, pp.1–60, 2021.

V. Upadrista, S. Nazir, and H. Tianfield, ”Secure data sharing with blockchain for remote health monitoring applications: a review,” Journal of Reliable Intelligent Environments, vol.9, no.3, pp.349–368, 2023.

L. Colquhoun. "IoT Security Is Giving Healthcare Heart Attacks." CDOTrends.,data%20breaches%20involved%20IoT%20devices%E2%80%9D (accessed February 24, 2024).

A. Alabdulatif, I. Khalil, and M. S. Rahman, “Security of Blockchain and AI-Empowered Smart Healthcare: Application-Based Analysis,” Applied Sciences, vol.12, no.21, pp.1–32, October 2022.

M. Mijwil, O. J. Unogwu, Y. Filali, I. Bala, and H. Al-Shahwani, “Exploring the Top Five Evolving Threats in Cybersecurity: An In-Depth Overview,” Mesopotamian Journal of CyberSecurity, vol.2023, pp.57–63, March 2023.

M. A. Mohammed, M. Boujelben, and M. Abid, “A Novel Approach for Fraud Detection in Blockchain-Based Healthcare Networks Using Machine Learning,” Future Internet, vol.15, no.8, pp.1–18, 2023.

V. Pandagle, “Legacy Systems In Healthcare Impact Growth, Data Security.” The Cyber Express. (accessed February 13, 2024).

S. Renukappa, P. Mudiyia, S. Suresh, W. Abdalla, and C. Subbarao, “Evaluation of challenges for adoption of smart healthcare strategies,” Smart Health, vol.26, pp.1–14, 2022.

A. Aljaloud, and A. Razzaq, “Modernizing the Legacy Healthcare System to Decentralize Platform Using Blockchain Technology,” Technologies, vol.11, no.4, pp.1–17, 2023.

S. Islam, S. Papastergiou, E. Kalogeraki, and K. Kioskli, “Cyberattack Path Generation and Prioritisation for Securing Healthcare Systems,” Applied Sciences, vol.12, no.9, pp.1–22, 2022.

M. S. Arbabi, C. Lal, N. R. Veeraragavan, D. Marijan, J. F. Nygård, and R. Vitenberg, “A Survey on Blockchain for Healthcare: Challenges, Benefits, and Future Directions,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol.25, no.1, pp.386–424, 2023.

X. Zhang, M. Pike, N. Mustafa, and V. Brusic, “Ethically Informed Software Process for Smart Health Home,” 2022 IEEE 35th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), Shenzen, China, 21-23 July 2022, pp.187–192.

M. M. Akhtar, A. Haleem, and M. Javaid, “Scope of health care system in rural areas under Medical 4.0 environment,” Intelligent Pharmacy, vol.1, no.4, pp.217–223, 2023.

D. Jain, “Regulation of Digital Healthcare in India: Ethical and Legal Challenges,” Healthcare, vol.11, no.6, pp.1–24, 2023.

H. Lin, K. Kaur, X. Wang, G. Kaddoum, J. Hu, and M. M. Hassan,”Privacy-Aware Access Control in IoT-Enabled Healthcare: A Federated Deep Learning Approach,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol.10, no.4, pp.2893–2902, 2023.

P. Twenter, “2 in 3 healthcare organizations’ supply chains attacked: Report.” Becker’s Hospital Review. (accessed February 16, 2024).

A. Wilner, H. Luce, E. Ouellet, O. Williams, and N. Costa, “From public health to cyber hygiene: Cybersecurity and Canada’s healthcare sector,” International Journal, vol.76, no.4, pp.522–543, 2022.

S. J. Kirubakaran, A. Gunasekaran, D. R. J. Dolly, D. J. Jagannath, and J. D. Peter, “A feasible approach to smart remote health monitoring: Subscription-based model,” Frontiers in public health, vol.11, pp.1-6, 2023.

H. A. Noman, O. M. F. Abu-Sharkh, “Code Injection Attacks in Wireless-Based Internet of Things (IoT): A Comprehensive Review and Practical Implementations,” Sensors, vol.23, no.13, pp.1–53, 2023.

V. Abdullayev and A. S. Chauhan, “SQL Injection Attack: Quick View,” Mesopotamian Journal of Cybersecurity, vol.2023, pp.30–34, 2023.

M. Alghawazi, D. Alghazzawi, S. Alarifi, S. “Detection of SQL Injection Attack Using Machine Learning Techniques: A Systematic Literature Review,” Journal of Cybersecurity and Privacy, vol.2, no.4, pp.764–777, 2022.

R. Veluvarthi, A. Rameswarapu, K. V. Kalyan, J. Piri, and B. Acharya, “Security and Privacy Threats of IoT Devices: A & Short Review,” In 2023 4th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication (ICSPC), Coimbatore, India, 23-24 March 2023, pp.32–37.

K. Karunanithy, and V. Bhanumathi, “Edge device based efficient data collection in smart health monitoring system using wireless body area network,” Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, vol.72, pp.103280, 2022.

H. Verma, N. Chauhan, N. Chand, and L. K. Awasthi, “Buffer-loss estimation to address congestion in 6LoWPAN based resource-restricted ‘Internet of Healthcare Things’ network,” Computer Communications, vol.181, pp.236–256, 2022.

A. Sheikh, S. Kumar, and A. Ambhaikar, “An Energy-Efficient Approach for the Security of IoT Networks using SCEER,” In 2022 1st International Conference on Informatics (ICI), Noida, India, 14-16 April 2022, pp.1–6.

A. Albattah and M. A. Rassam, “Detection of Adversarial Attacks against the Hybrid Convolutional Long Short-Term Memory Deep Learning Technique for Healthcare Monitoring Applications,” Applied Sciences, vol.13, no.11, pp.1–17, 2023.

K. A. Ali, and S. Alyounis, “CyberSecurity in Healthcare Industry,” 2021 International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT), Amman, Jordan, 14-15 July 2021, pp. 695-701.

A. A. Sharah, H. A. Owida, T. A. Edwan, and F. Alnaimat, “A Cooperative Smart Jamming Attack in Internet of Things Networks,” Journal of Information and Communication Convergence Engineering, vol.20, no.4, pp.250–258, 2022.

G. Sharma, and G. Singh, “Robust User Authentication Scheme for IoT-Based Healthcare Applications,” Advances in Medical Technologies and Clinical Practice Book Series, IGI Global, 2023, pp.170–182.

M. A. Al-Shareeda, S. Manickam, S. A. Laghari, and A. Jaisan, “Replay-Attack Detection and Prevention Mechanism in Industry 4.0 Landscape for Secure SECS/GEM Communications,” Sustainability, vol.14, no.23, pp.1–15, 2022.

K. R. Saraf and P. Malathi, “Splunk-Based Threat Intelligence of Cyber-Physical System: A Case Study with Smart Healthcare,” International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering, vol.11, no.2, pp.537–549, 2023.

R. Qureshi, M. Asad, S. Tunio, S. Qureshi, M. Ahmed, M. and A. Ghulam, "A Survey on Security Issues and Attacks of Fog Computing," VFAST Transactions on Software Engineering, vol.11, no.1, pp.1–11, 2023.

C. Xenofontos, I. Zografopoulos, C. Konstantinou, A. Jolfaei, M. K. Khan, and K. R. Choo, ”Consumer, Commercial, and Industrial IoT (In)Security: Attack Taxonomy and Case Studies,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol.9, no.1, pp.199–221, 2022.

K. Rajkumar and U. Hariharan, "Analytics for data security and privacy in 5G health-care services," in Blockchain for 5G Healthcare Applications: Security and Privacy Solutions, IET Digital Library, 2021, pp. 315–345.

M. Hassan, N. Tariq, A. Alsirhani, A. Alomari, F. A. Khan, M. M. Alshahrani, M. Ashraf, and M. Humayun, “GITM: A GINI Index-Based Trust Mechanism to Mitigate and Isolate Sybil Attack in RPL-Enabled Smart Grid Advanced Metering Infrastructures,” IEEE Access, vol.11, pp.62697–62720, 2023.

A. Shaji and N. S. Nair, “A Novel Trust Based Two Phase Algorithm to Detect Sybil Attack in IoMT Networks,” 2023 9th International Conference on Smart Computing and Communications (ICSCC), Kochi, Kerala, India, 17-19 August 2023, pp.309–314.

A. S. S. Thuluva, M. S. Somanathan, S. Ramasubbareddy, S. Sennan, and D. Burgos, “Secure and efficient transmission of data based on Caesar Cipher Algorithm for Sybil attack in IoT,” EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, vol.2021, no.1, pp.1–23, 2021.

S. E. Ali, N. Tariq, F. A. Khan, M. Ashraf, W. Abdul, and K. Saleem, “BFT-IoMT: A Blockchain-Based Trust Mechanism to Mitigate Sybil Attack Using Fuzzy Logic in the Internet of Medical Things,” Sensors, vol.23, no.9, pp.1–17, 2023.

D. Arshad, M. Asim, N. Tariq, T. Baker, H. Tawfik, and D. Al‐Jumeily, “THC-RPL: A lightweight Trust-enabled routing in RPL-based IoT networks against Sybil attack,” PLoS ONE, vol.17, no.7, pp.1–33, 2022.

A. A. Khan, A. Ahmad, M. Waseem, P. Liang, M. Fahmideh, T. Mikkonen, and P. Abrahamsson, “Software architecture for quantum computing systems — A systematic review,” Journal of Systems and Software, vol.201, pp.1–29, 2023.

S. F. Ahmed, M. S. B. Alam, S. Afrin, S. J. Rafa, N. Rafa, and A. H. Gandomi, ”Insights into Internet of Medical Things (IoMT): Data fusion, security issues and potential solutions,” Information Fusion, vol.102, pp.1–20, 2024.

A. Arafa, H. Sheerah, and S. Alsalamah, “Emerging Digital Technologies in Healthcare with a Spotlight on Cybersecurity: A Narrative Review,” Information, vol.14, no.12, pp.1–15, 2023.

B. S. Shukur, M. Aljanabi, and A. H. Ali, “ChatGPT: Exploring the Role of Cybersecurity in the Protection of Medical Information,” Mesopotamian Journal of Cybersecurity, pp.18–21, 2023.

H. Szczepaniuk and E. K. Szczepaniuk, “Cryptographic evidence-based cybersecurity for smart healthcare systems,” Information Sciences, vol.649, pp.1–23, 2023.

D. Said, “Quantum Computing and Machine Learning for Cybersecurity: Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack Detection on Smart Micro-Grid,” Energies, vol.16, no.8, pp.1–11, 2023.

V. K. Pallaw, K. U. Singh, A. Kumar, T. Singh, C. Swarup, and A. Goswami, “A Robust Medical Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Nature-Inspired Optimization for Telemedicine Applications,” Electronics, vol.12, no.2, pp.1–18, 2023.

D. Awasthi, P. Khare, and V. K. Srivastava, “BacterialWmark: telemedicine watermarking technique using bacterial foraging for smart healthcare system,” Journal of Electronic Imaging, vol.32, no.04, pp.042107-1-042107–042115, 2023.

S. Gull and S. A. Parah, “Advances in medical image watermarking: a state of the art review,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol.83, no.1, pp.1407–1447, 2024.

E. A. Hachim and Y. M. Mohialden, “Cloud-based digital watermarking model for medical image integrity,” Scientific Research Journal of Engineering and Computer Science, vol.3, no.5, pp.1-6, 2023.

M. Sajeer and A. Mishra, “A robust and secured fusion based hybrid medical image watermarking approach using RDWT-DWT-MSVD with Hyperchaotic system-Fibonacci Q Matrix encryption,” Multimedia tools and applications, pp.1–23, 2023. Advance online publication.

B. Abd-El-Atty, “A robust medical image steganography approach based on particle swarm optimization algorithm and quantum walks,” Neural Computing and Applications, vol.35, no.1, pp.773–785, 2023.

H. N. AlEisa, “Data Confidentiality in Healthcare Monitoring Systems Based on Image Steganography to Improve the Exchange of Patient Information Using the Internet of Things,” Journal of Healthcare Engineering, vol.2022, pp.1–11, 2022.

B. R. Louassef, and N. Chikouche, “Privacy preservation in healthcare systems,” 2021 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Cyber Security Systems and Privacy (AI-CSP), El Oued, Algeria, 20-21 November 2021, pp. 1–6.

B. Kumar, “Patient-Controlled Mechanism Using Pseudonymization Technique for Ensuring the Security and Privacy of Electronic Health Records,” International Journal of Reliable and Quality E-healthcare, vol.11, no.1, pp.1–15, 2022.

Z. Jamroz, I. Ullah, B. Hassan, N. U. Amin, M. A. Khan, P. Lorenz, and N. Innab, “An Optimal Authentication Scheme through Dual Signature for the Internet of Medical Things,” Future Internet, vol.15, no.8, pp.1–14, 2023.

S. Rani, A. Kataria, S. Kumar, and P. Tiwari, “Federated learning for secure IoMT-applications in smart healthcare systems: A comprehensive review,” Knowledge-Based Systems, vol.274, pp.1–28, 2023.

J. Andrew, J. Karthikeyan, J. Eunice, M. Pomplun, and H. Dang, “Privacy Preserving Attribute-Focused Anonymization Scheme for Healthcare Data Publishing,” IEEE Access, vol.10, pp.86979–86997, 2022.

F. Mosaiyebzadeh, S. Pouriyeh, R. M. Parizi, Q. Z. Sheng, M. Han, L. Zhao, G. Sannino, C. M. Ranieri, J. Ueyama, and D. M. Batista, “Privacy-Enhancing Technologies in Federated Learning for the Internet of Healthcare Things: A Survey,” Electronics, vol.12 no.12, pp.1–28, 2023.

D. E. Majdoubi, H. E. Bakkali, S. Sadki, Z. Maqour, and A. Leghmid, “The Systematic Literature Review of Privacy-Preserving Solutions in Smart Healthcare Environment,” Security and Communication Networks, vol.2022, pp.1–26, 2022.

K. Sowjanya, M. Dasgupta, and S. Ray, “A lightweight key management scheme for key-escrow-free ECC-based CP-ABE for IoT healthcare systems,” Journal of Systems Architecture, vol.117, pp.102108, 2021.

R. R. T. Da Silva, N. Antunes, and A. H. F. De Morais, “Privacy in electronic health records: a systematic mapping study,” Journal of Public Health, pp.1–20, 2024.

A. Alzu’bi, A. Alomar, S. Alkhaza’leh, A. Abuarqoub, and M. Hammoudeh, “A Review of Privacy and Security of Edge Computing in Smart Healthcare Systems: Issues, Challenges, and Research Directions,” Tsinghua Science & Technology, vol.29 no.4, pp.1152–1180, 2024.

P. Nag, P. Chandrakar, and K. Chandrakar, “An Improved Two-Factor Authentication Scheme for Healthcare System,” Procedia Computer Science, vol.218, pp.1079–1090, 2023.

S. Das, S. Namasudra, S. Deb, P. Moreno-Ger, and R. G. Crespo, “Securing IoT-Based Smart Healthcare Systems by Using Advanced Lightweight Privacy-Preserving Authentication Scheme,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol.10 no.21, pp.18486–18494, 2023.

K. Thilagam, A. Beno, M. P. Lakshmi, C. B. Wilfred, S. M. George, M. Karthikeyan, P. Vijayakumar, C. Ramesh, and P. Karunakaran, “Secure IoT Healthcare Architecture with Deep Learning-Based Access Control System,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol.2022, pp.1–8, 2022.

T. Suleski, M. Ahmed, W. Yang, and E. Wang, “A review of multi-factor authentication in the Internet of Healthcare Things,” Digital Health, vol.9, pp.1–20, 2023.

S. Monga and D. Singh, “MRBSChain a novel scalable medical records binance smart chain framework enabling a paradigm shift in medical records management,” Scientific Reports, vol.12 no.1, pp.1–12, 2022.

T. A. Alhaj, S. M. Abdulla, M. a. E. Iderss, A. a. A. Ali, F. A. Elhaj, M. A. Remli, and L. A. Gabralla, “A Survey: To Govern, Protect, and Detect Security Principles on Internet of Medical Things (IoMT),” IEEE Access, vol.10, pp.124777–124791, 2022.

M. A. Khatun, S. F. Memon, C. Eising, and L. L. Dhirani, “Machine Learning for Healthcare-IoT Security: A Review and Risk Mitigation,” IEEE Access, vol.11, pp.145869–145896, 2023.

K. Vilakazi, and F. Adebesin, “A Systematic Literature Review on Cybersecurity Threats to Healthcare Data and Mitigation Strategies,” Proceedings of Society 5.0 Conference 2023, vol.93, pp. 240–251.

C. Stergiou, A. P. Plageras, V. A. Memos, M. P. Koidou, and K. E. Psannis, “Secure Monitoring System for IoT Healthcare Data in the Cloud,” Applied Sciences, vol.14 no.1, pp.1–16, 2024.

R. W. Mponda, K. M. A. Sithik, and Tawarish, “Smart Health System and Electronic Health Passport,” International Journal of Research Publication and Reviews, vol.5, no.2, pp.3197–3201, 2024.

R. Marshal, K. Gobinath, and V. V. Rao, “Proactive Measures to Mitigate Cyber Security Challenges in IoT based Smart Healthcare Networks,” 2021 IEEE International IOT, Electronics and Mechatronics Conference (IEMTRONICS), Toronto, ON, Canada, 21-24 April 2021, pp.1–4.

N. Dissanayake, M. Zahedi, A. Jayatilaka, and M. A. Babar, ”Why, How and Where of Delays in Software Security Patch Management: An Empirical Investigation in the Healthcare Sector,” Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, vol.6, No.CSCW2, New York, NY, United States, November 2022, pp.1–29.

V. Agrawal, S. Agrawal, A. Bomanwar, T. Dubey, and A. Jaiswal, “Exploring the Risks, Benefits, Advances, and Challenges in Internet Integration in Medicine With the Advent of 5G Technology: A Comprehensive Review,” Cureus, vol.15, no.11, pp.1-16, 2023.

S. Abdulmalek, A. Nasir, and W. A. Jabbar, “LoRaWAN-based Hybrid Internet of Wearable Things System Implementation for Smart Healthcare,” Internet of Things, vol.25, pp.1–21, 2024.

J. Kongsen, D. Chantaradsuwan, P. Koad, M. Thu, and C. Jandaeng, “A Secure Blockchain-Enabled Remote Healthcare Monitoring System for Home Isolation,” Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, vol.13, no.1, pp.1–20, 2024.

C. Li, J. Wang, S. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “A Review of IoT Applications in Healthcare,” Neurocomputing, vol.565, pp.1–12, 2024.

A. M. Said, A. Yahyaoui, and T. Abdellatif, “Efficient Anomaly Detection for Smart Hospital IoT Systems,” Sensors, vol.21, no.4, pp.1–24, 2021.

A. Baz, R. Ahmed, S. R. Khan, and S. Kumar, ”Security Risk Assessment Framework for the Healthcare Industry 5.0,” Sustainability, vol.15, no.23, pp.1–27, 2023.

S. Ksibi, F. Jaïdi, and A. Bouhoula, “A Comprehensive Study of Security and Cyber-Security Risk Management within e-Health Systems: Synthesis, Analysis and a Novel Quantified Approach,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol.28, no.1, pp.107–127, 2022.

Pritika, B. Shanmugam, and S. Azam, ”Risk Assessment of Heterogeneous IoMT Devices: A Review,” Technologies, vol.11, no.1, pp.1–34, 2023.

V. Malamas, F. Chantzis, T. K. Dasaklis, G. Stergiopoulos, P. Kotzanikolaou, and C. Douligeris, ”Risk Assessment Methodologies for the Internet of Medical Things: A Survey and Comparative Appraisal,” IEEE Access, vol.9, pp.40049–40075, 2021.

A. Yadav, N. Ahmad, I. R. Khan, P. Agarwal, and H. Kaur, ”Role of AI, Big data in Smart Healthcare System,” 2023 6th International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Networks (ISCON), Mathura, India, 03-04 March 2023, pp.1–8.

M. Al-Hawawreh, N. Moustafa, and J. Slay, “A threat intelligence framework for protecting smart satellite-based healthcare networks, ”Neural Computing and Applications, vol.36, no.1, pp.15–35, 2024.

W. Zhang, Y. Bai, and J. Feng, ”TIIA: A blockchain-enabled Threat Intelligence Integrity Audit scheme for IioT,” Future Generation Computer Systems, vol.132, pp.254–265, 2022.

H. Ali, J. Ahmad, Z. Jaroucheh, P. Papadopoulos, N. Pitropakis, O. Lo, W. Abramson, and W. J. Buchanan, “Trusted Threat Intelligence Sharing in Practice and Performance Benchmarking through the Hyperledger Fabric Platform,” Entropy, vol.24, no.10, pp.1-32, 2022.

W. Maina, L. Nderu, and T. Mwalili, ”A Smart Contract Approach to Cyber Threat Intelligence Sharing in Kenya,” 2022 IST-Africa Conference (IST-Africa), Ireland, 16-20 May 2022, pp.1–10.

J. V. B. Benifa, G. V. Mini, and S. Krishnan, ”Blockchain-based health care monitoring for privacy preservation of COVID-19 medical records,” in Blockchain for Smart Cities, ScienceDirect, 2021, pp.259–294.

L. Wang, X. Liu, W. Shao, C. Y. Guan, Q. Huang, S. Xu, and S. Zhang, “A Blockchain-Based Privacy-Preserving Healthcare Data Sharing Scheme for Incremental Updates,” Symmetry, vol.16, no.1, pp.1–17, 2024.

I. Bala, M. M. Mijwil, G. Ali, and E. Sadıkoğlu, ”Analysing the Connection Between AI and Industry 4.0 from a Cybersecurity Perspective: Defending the Smart Revolution,” Mesopotamian Journal of Big Data, vol.2023, pp.63–69, 2023.

A. H. Omran, S. Mohammed, and M. Aljanabi, ”Detecting Data Poisoning Attacks in Federated Learning for Healthcare Applications Using Deep Learning,” Iraqi Journal for Computer Science and Mathematics, vol.4, no.4, pp.225–237, 2023.

M. M. Khan and M. Alkhathami, “Anomaly detection in IoT-based healthcare: machine learning for enhanced security,” Scientific Reports, vol.14, no.1, pp.1–16, 2024.

A. M. Judith, G. J. W. Kathrine, S. Silas, and J. Andrew, “Efficient Deep Learning-Based Cyber-Attack Detection for Internet of Medical Things Devices,” Engineering Proceedings, vol.59, no.1, pp.1–10, 2023.

E. C. P. Neto, S. Dadkhah, S. Sadeghi, H. Molyneaux, and A. A. Ghorbani, “A review of Machine Learning (ML)-based IoT security in healthcare: A dataset perspective,” Computer Communications, vol.213, pp.61–77, 2024.

A. V. L. N. Sujith, G. S. Sajja, V. Mahalakshmi, S. Nuhmani, and P. Balaji, “Systematic review of smart health monitoring using deep learning and Artificial intelligence,” Neuroscience Informatics, vol.2, no.3, pp.1–6, 2022.

Y. Chen, L. Zhang, and M. Wei, “How Does Smart Healthcare Service Affect Resident Health in the Digital Age? Empirical Evidence From 105 Cities of China, Frontiers in Public Health, vol.9, pp.1–10, 2022.

D. Tin, R. Hata, F. Granholm, R. G. Ciottone, R. Staynings, and G. R. Ciottone, “Cyberthreats: A primer for healthcare professionals,” The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol.68, pp.179–185, 2023.

M. P. Carello, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, L. Querzoni, and M. Angelini, “SoK: Cybersecurity Regulations, Standards and Guidelines for the Healthcare Sector.,” 2023 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI), Charlotte, NC, USA, 02-03 October 2023, pp. 1–6.

G. Mishra, “A Comprehensive Review of Smart Healthcare Systems: Architecture, Applications, Challenges, and Future Directions,” International Journal of Innovative Research in Technology and Science, vol.12, no.2, pp.210-218, 2024.

A. Husnain, S. N. Rasool, A. Saeed, A. Y. Gill, and H. K. Hussain, “AI’s Healing Touch: Examining Machine Learning’s Transformative Effects on Healthcare,” Journal of World Science, vol.2, no.10, pp.1681–1695, 2023.

G. Ali, M. M. Mijwil, B. A. Buruga, M. Abotaleb, “A Comprehensive Review of Cyber Threats and Attacks, and Mitigation Techniques in FinTech,” Iraqi Journal for Computer Science and Mathematics, vol.5, no.3, In press, 2024.